Active listening: Focusing entirely on what the child is saying understanding the emotions and feelings underlying the message
Alternative provision: For children of compulsory school age who do not attend mainstream or special schools
Amphetamines: A group of amphetamine-type stimulants that includes amphetamine and methamphetamine
Annual review: The review of an EHC plan which the Local Authority must make as a minimum every 12 months.
Care pathway: The route a person takes through healthcare services
Child Protection Plan: A plan drawn up by social care services to protect a child who they feel is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm
Children in need: A child within social care services who doesn’t meet the threshold for being ‘looked-after’ but is receiving intervention from social care services.
Cognitive behavioural therapy: A range of behavioural and cognitive behavioural therapies to achieve specific treatment goals
“Crack” cocaine: Cocaine base obtained from cocaine hydrochloride through conversion processes to make it suitable for smoking.
Cocaine salt: Cocaine hydrochloride.
Dependence: Occurs when the body adapts to prolonged use of a drug and where the person experiences withdrawal in it absence.
Depression: Where an individual usually suffers from depressed mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, and reduced energy leading to increased fatigability and diminished activity
Designated Teachers: Champions the educational attainment of looked-after and permanently placed children
Diabetes Mellitus: A metabolic disease where the body is not able to regulate blood sugar levels due to an inability to produce insulin
Diagnosis: The process of identifying an illness by carrying out tests or by studying the symptoms
Dual Diagnosis: Co-existence of two illnesses or conditions
Dysphoria: An emotional state characterised by malaise, anxiety, depression or unease
Dysthymia: A chronic depression of mood
Effectiveness: The extent to which a specific intervention does what it is intended to do
Early Years Foundation Stage: The framework for the learning, development and care of children from birth to five years.
Education Health and Care Plan: Details the education, health and social care support that is to be provided to a child with SEN and/or disabilities
Epilepsies: Convulsive attacks due to disordered electrical activity in the brain
Exogenous Stressors: Stress which derives from outside the body such as life-event stress.
Family Therapy: Sessions based on systemic, cognitive behavioural or psychoanalytic principles
Graduated Response: A model of action and intervention to support children who have SEN
Healthy Child Programme: Supports pregnancy and the first five years of a child’s life, focussing on universal preventative service with screening, immunisation, health and development reviews
Joint Strategic Needs Assessment: Information, advice and support services for children and caregivers with SEN or disabilities
Local Authority: Leading integration arrangements for children with SEND
Local Offer: Local Authority information about provision they expect to be available across education, health and social care for children in their area who have SEND
Maintained School: Schools which are maintained by a Local Authority
Methodology: Describes how research is carried out, including how information is collected and analysed, and why a particular method or methods have been chosen
Mild Depression: Four depressive symptoms as defined by the ICD-10
Moderate Depression: Five or six depressive symptoms as defined by the ICD-10
National Curriculum: Statutory entitlement to learning for all children from 5-16 years
NHS England: An independent body, to improve health outcomes for people in England
Official Exclusions: These are recorded with central or local government and include temporary fixed period exclusions or permanent exclusions
Ofsted: Responsible for the inspection of all schools in England
Opioids: A generic term applied to alkaloids from opium poppy (opiates), their synthetic analogues
(mainly prescription or pharmaceutical opioids) and compounds synthesised in the body
Prevalence: How common a type of exceptionality is within a population, either at a point in time or over a given period of time
Prognosis: The medical assessment of the future course of events and probable outcome of an illness
Pupil Referral Unit: Provides education for children who would otherwise not receive suitable education because of illness, exclusion or any other reason
Reliability: The ability to get the same or similar result each time a study is repeated with a different population or group
Schizophrenia: A severe mental health disorder which is characterised by a loss of reality
Severe Mental Illness: Refers to those with psychological problems that are so debilitating that their ability to engage and function is severely challenged
Special Educational Needs: A child has an SEN if they have a learning difficulty or disability which calls for special educational provision to be made
Special Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCO): A qualified teacher in a school or maintained nursery school who has responsibility for coordinating SEN provision
SEN Support: Extra or different support that is provided in addition to the school’s usual curriculum
Severe Depression: Seven or more depressive symptoms as defined by the ICD-10.
Social Care: All forms of personal care and other practical assistance for children who need extra support
Special Educational Provision: Provision that is different from or additional to that normally available to children with SEN to enable them to access and participate in learning
Specialist School: A school which is specifically organised to make special educational provision for children with SEN
Stakeholder: An organisation/individual with an interest in a topic, including public sector providers and commissioners of care or services
Statutory Duty: A legal duty that must be complied with
Unofficial Exclusions: These are not recorded as exclusions in the national data and include managed moves to a different school; a move into some form of alternative provision offsite; or illegal exclusions
Young Person: A person over compulsory school age (the end of the academic year in which they turn 16 to the age of 25
Watchful Waiting: An intervention in which no active treatment is offered
Martin-Denham, S. and Watts, S. (2019) SENCO Handbook: Leading provision and Practice. London: Sage Publishers.